Both the staff and the pulpit itself had been tokens of authority among the ancient Arabs, and were used by orators and by arbitrators settling disputes. Many were over- thrown and replaced by successive waves of conquest, each creating a new and short-lived conqueror ruling class. A derived participial form, mustatfaf,30 "made weak" or "deemed weak," has acquired the meaning of "deprived" or "oppressed" and has been used from medieval times to the present day in revolutionary appeals. Much classical Arabic poetry was written to be recited in public; much of it consists of eulogy and satire. The commonest term in Arabic and other languages is mamlaka, Turkish memleket, with the plural mamatik. Terms like "ulema" and "mufti," which have become accepted English words, are written without diacritical signs. It was based, not on conquests or positions or power, but simply on descent, in the male line, from the founder of the faith. We in the Western world have become accustomed to other criteria of classification, by nation, by country, and by various subdivisions of these. The Zoroastrians of the eastern provinces, the Christians of the central and western provinces, and-less important-thesurviv- ing Jewish minorities living among both, all made their contribution.
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